Medically reviewed by Dr. Riaz Ali Shah.
It may be difficult to believe, yet nearly 27% of the global population suffers from high and low blood pressure. The major causes of blood pressure and high blood pressure symptoms vary from person to person. This illness, known as hypertension and hypotension, can result in fatal complications if left untreated.
Doctors frequently refer to chronic high blood pressure as a “silent killer” due to the absence of evident symptoms until an incident causes severe damage. This is one of the many reasons why an annual medical examination that includes a blood pressure check is crucial.
What is high and low blood pressure?
Blood pressure is the measurement of the force or pressure exerted by blood against the walls of blood vessels. When you have hypertension (high blood pressure), the pressure against the walls of your blood vessels is consistently excessively high. Hypotension (low blood pressure), implies blood is not adequately flowing to the brain, arteries, and organs. Chronic low blood pressure without symptoms virtually never causes alarm, unless blood pressure drops unexpectedly and the brain is deprived of appropriate blood supply. Because high blood pressure can be caused by a variety of causes, it can be challenging to identify the source. Here are some of the most prevalent risk factors that might lead to hypertension and hypotension.
[Also read: Blood pressure in Urdu]
What factors lead to hypertension and hypotension?
Food, medication, lifestyle, age, and genetics can all cause hypertension. Some common factors include:
- A diet heavy in salt, fat, and/or cholesterol
- Chronic diseases, include kidney and hormone issues, diabetes, and high cholesterol
- Family history, particularly if parents or close relatives have hypertension
- Insufficient physical exercise
- Older age
- Being overweight or obese
- Certain contraceptives and other medications
- Tobacco use or excessive alcohol consumption
Factors that lead to hypotension include:
- Hormonal problems such as an underactive thyroid, diabetes, or low blood sugar
- Some over-the-counter medications
- Medicines such as for high blood pressure, depression, or Parkinson’s disease
- Heart failure
- Abnormal heart rhythms
- Heat exhaustion or heat stroke
- Liver disease
High blood pressure symptoms
Most individuals with hypertension do not exhibit symptoms. It is imperative to have your blood pressure tested frequently.
Some individuals with high blood pressure have headaches, nosebleeds, and shortness of breath. However, these symptoms may mimic numerous different conditions- serious or non-serious. Typically, these symptoms manifest when the blood pressure has reached a dangerously high level over time.
Low blood pressure symptoms
Symptoms of hypotension include blurred or fading vision, dizziness, nausea, fainting, fatigue, and trouble concentrating.
What is average blood pressure by age in Pakistan?
Normal blood pressure range for most adults is defined as a systolic pressure of less than 120 and a diastolic pressure of less than 80.
How to prevent or manage high and low blood pressure?
Many individuals with high and low blood pressure can drop their blood pressure into a reasonable range or maintain their numbers within a healthy range by altering their lifestyles. This can prevent high and low blood pressure too.
- Participating in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per week
- Not smoking
- Consuming a healthy diet that limits salt and alcohol consumption
- Maintaining a desirable weight
- Managing stress
Emergency treatment for high blood pressure at home
Vasodilators are used to treat a hypertensive emergency. The goal of therapy for a hypertensive emergency is to lower the mean arterial pressure by no more than 25% within minutes to 1 hour and then stabilize blood pressure. Thiazide Diuretics, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, or Calcium Channel Blockers are widely recommended blood pressure medicine in Pakistan.
Heat warms your body and promotes blood circulation throughout it. Better circulation may reduce blood pressure and heart disease risk. Having one or two cups of hot water is a simple approach to stimulate blood flow as an immediate treatment for high blood pressure at home or consuming lemonade with salt for low blood pressure.
By: Sanya Zahid