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Diabetes insipidus


Diabetes insipidus is a rare disorder characterized by the body's inability to maintain balance of fluid levels. It is not associated with diabetes mellitus and can occur in anyone. Person who is suffering from diabetes insipidus experiences excessive thirst and urination. There are different types of diabetes insipidus:

  1. Central diabetes insipidus is caused due to pituitary gland or hypothalamus damage
  2. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused due to inability of the kidney to respond to ADH.
  3. Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused due to a defect in thirst mechanism, it may be associated with any mental disorder or medication.
  4. Gestational diabetes insipidus; a placental hormone destroys mother ADH.

Diabetes insipidus occurs due to the body's inability to balance fluid levels. There are various causes why body is not able to maintain fluid levels, which includes:

  • Damage to pituitary or hypothalamus,
  • Kidney tubule defect.
  • Pregnancy
  • Damage to thirst regulating mechanisms etc.
Risk factors

Some factors that may increase the risk of developing diabetes insipidus:

  • Autoimmune disease
  •  Pituitary surgery
  • Birth defects
  •  Certain medications
  •  Traumatic brain injury
  • Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)

 Common signs and symptoms are as follows:

  • Bedwetting
  • Tachycardia (Increased heart rate)
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Dehydration
  • Excretion urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Elevates serum sodium
  • Low blood pressure
  • Dry skin
  • Irritability

 Following laboratory tests help in the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus:

  •  Glucose levels
  •  Urine test
  •  Plasma anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) check
  •  Serum electrolyte concentration

- Water intake is advised to replace the loss of water in the body.

-Following medications may be prescribed to treat diabetes insipidus:

  • Desmopressin
  • Diuretics like hydrocholorothiazide
  • Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs(NSAIDS)
  • A low-solute diet (mostly low-sodium, low protein diet)
When to consult a doctor?

 A doctor should be consulted if:

  •  The medications prescribed are not helping in managing the symptoms.
  • You experience any side effects of the medication prescribed.

Available Medicine for Diabetes insipidus

Minirin 0.1mg



Minirin 0.2mg