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Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Description

The prostate enlarges as a normal part of aging, however eventually this can lead to a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia. This condition is fairly common in men over the age of 50 years.

In this condition, the prostate enlarges and this puts pressure on the urethra (a tube like structure that carries urine), and this may result in some problems while urinating.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia, also known as benign prostatic hypertrophy is the most common urologic disease in men. BPH is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. Prostate is a muscular gland in the male reproductive system that is responsible for production of most of the fluids of the semen. Enlargement of the gland encroaches the urethra, disturbing the flow of urine. It is a very common disease in patients older than 50 years of age.

Causes

Causes of benign prostatic hyperplasia include:

 

Hormones: Androgens play a very crucial role in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. As age increases, testosterone levels decrease; leading to increased estrogen levels. High levels of estrogen and dihydrotestosterone trigger the prostate gland to enlarge.

 

Diet: High protein diet increases the risk of getting benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Risk factors

Following factors increase the risk of developing benign prostatic hyperplasia:

 

  1. Old age: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a very common disease in patients who are older than 50 years of age.
  2. Family history: If your father or brother has a history of prostatic hyperplasia, you are more likely to develop it.
  3. Diabetes: Diabetic patients are more likely to develop this disease.
  4. Increased weight increases the chances of developing BPH
  5. Erectile dysfunction: Patients with erectile dysfunction have an increased risk of developing benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Symptoms

The enlarged prostate applies pressure on the urethra (the tube that carries urine).  This means that the bladder muscles need to work harder to release urine, causing these muscles to weaken over time. These changes may result in the following symptoms:

Urinary frequency and urgency

  • Increased frequency of urination at night
  • Decreased flow of urine
  • Hematuria (blood in urine)
  • Dribbling of urine at the end of stream.
Diagnosis

Diagnosis usually involves

  • History, physical examination and a digital rectal exam to estimate the size of the prostrate.
  • Blood Tests may be conducted to measure PSA (prostate specific antigen), and also to check for kidney problems.
  • Urine tests may be required to rule out other diseases.
  • Further testing with the help of ultrasound, urine flow tests and even biopsy may be required in some cases.
Management

The goal of management is to relieve the symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia. There is a wide variety of treatment options available depending upon the severity of the disease, It includes:

  • Medicines:

 Alpha-blockers relax the muscles in the prostate and 5-Alpha reductase inhibits the production of dihydrotestosterone that is responsible for growth of prostate.

 

 

 

  • Minimal invasive procedures: There are many types of Minimal invasive procedures, some of them are:

Transurethral resection of the prostate: Removal of all but the outer part of the prostate.

Transurethral incision of the prostate: Incisions done on prostate gland to relieve pressure symptoms.

Transurethral needle ablation: destruction of prostate tissue with the help of needles and radio waves.

Laser prostatectomy: Removal of extra prostate tissue with the help of laser.

Photovaporization: It is used to vaporize the prostate tissue by using high-power green laser light.

 

  • Invasive Procedures:

Transurethral resection of the prostate: Prostate is removed piece by piece with the help of a small instrument that pass to the prostate via urethra.

Transurethral incision of the prostate: Small incisions are made at the bladder neck to relieve the symptoms.

Simple prostatectomy: Inner part of prostate is removed by opening up the abdomen. 

When to consult a doctor?

Consult your doctor if there is persistence or worsening of the condition, if you have urinary retention, kidney stones, urinary stones, sudden inability to urinate, and hematuria (blood in urine).

Available Medicine for Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Xatral SR 5mg

Rs.511.98

Sanofi

Xatral LP 10 mg

Rs.521.2

Sanofi

Xatral LP 10mg

Rs.1563.6

Sanofi

Cardura 2mg

Rs.276.98

Pfizer

Cardura 4mg

Rs.545.87

Pfizer