The Complete Blood Count (CBC) is a blood test that evaluates the cells that circulate in the blood. There are three types of cells present in the blood.
Red Blood Cells
White Blood Cells
Why is the Complete Blood Count Test done?
To determine general health status.
As part of a routine medical exam, when there are signs and symptoms that may be related to a condition that affects blood cells.
To diagnose conditions that affect blood cells, such as anemia, infection, bleeding disorder or inflammation.
To monitor treatment that can affect blood cells, like chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
WHAT DOES COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC) MEASURE?
Blood is classified as connective tissue with a liquid intercellular substance, plasma, in which blood cells are suspended. Complete blood count measures the following present cells in the blood.
RED BLOOD CELLS:
Red blood cells are also known as erythrocytes. They are biconcave in shape and are the most abundant cells in the body. RBCs carry Hemoglobin and transport oxygen to the tissues.
Hemoglobin is an oxygen-carrying metalloprotein.
Hematocrit is the ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood. Measure in percentage
WHITE BLOOD CELLS:
Also known as leukocytes. They make up the special system for combating the different infections and toxic agents.
Total Leucocyte count (TLC) is the measurement of the total number of leukocytes (WBCs) in a given volume of blood.
There are five types of WBCs
DIFFERENTIAL LEUKOCYTE COUNT:
Determines the percentage of different types of white blood cells.
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV):
Is the average volume of a red blood cell.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH):
Is the average amount of hemoglobin in the average red blood cell.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC):
Is the average concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of red cells.
Q1. How is this test performed?
This test is performed on a blood sample. The blood is obtained from the vein and this is performed by a healthcare provider in the following way.
clean the skin
put an elastic band above the area
insert a needle into a vein (usually in the arm inside of the elbow or on the back of the hand)
pull the blood sample into a vial or syringe
take off the elastic band and remove the needle from the vein
Q2. What are the risks associated with this test?
There is no significant risk associated with this test. A small bruise or mild soreness around the blood test site is common and can last for a few days. Get medical care if the discomfort gets worse or lasts longer.
Q3. What diseases can a complete blood count detect?
CBC results help to diagnose:
Bone marrow diseases
Q4. What do Low levels of Red blood cells and hemoglobin show?
Decreased levels of Hemoglobin and Red blood cells show Anemia, the most common type is Iron deficiency anemia.
Q5. What are the symptoms of Anemia?
The most common symptoms of anemia are:
Loss of energy
Shortness of breath
Lack of concentration
Q6. What are the causes of increased White blood cells?
High white blood cells indicate increased production of WBCs to fight various bacterial infections.
INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULT:
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)
Males: 4.3 - 6.2 x million/μL
Females: 3.8 - 5.5 million/μL
Infant/Child: 3.8 - 5.5 million/μL
Males: 13.2 - 16.2 gm/dL
Females: 12.0 - 15.2 gm/dL
White Blood Cell Count (WBC)
Differential Leucocyte Count
Neutrophils - 35-80%
Lymphocytes - 20-50%
Monocytes - 2-12%
Eosinophils - 0-7%
Basophils - 0-2%
1.5 - 4.5 lacs/μL
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)
To rule out the cause of different symptoms and get hold of any health problem that may include various infections, auto-immune disorders, cancer, anemia and several others.
For a regular health check-up
To evaluate the effectiveness of any treatment or therapy given