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Type 1 Diabetes

Description

It is also called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. It is defined as a serious condition in which pancreas produce insulin in minute amount or don’t produce at all. Insulin is a hormone which allows glucose (sugar) to enter cells & produce energy from it. This leads to high blood glucose levels as without insulin, sugar cannot get inside the cells & builds up in your bloodstream. There are various factors with genetics & certain viruses, that contribute to type 1 diabetes. Though type 1 diabetes will mostly appear in childhood or adolescence (that’s why known as juvenile diabetes). It may also develop during adulthood.

Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2 with approximately 5% to 10% being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Various ongoing researches are still trying to find a cure for type 1 diabetes. Its present treatment mainly focuses on managing blood glucose levels with insulin, proper diet & lifestyle to help prevent complications.

Causes

There are usually several causes that contribute to the development of diabetes. Some of the following include:

Familial tendency:  Diabetes tends to run in the family. You are at risk if your siblings or parents are diabetic.

Weight:  Being overweight, especially around the stomach area causes insulin resistance. This means that your body cannot use this hormone properly, and blood sugar levels may rise because of it.

  • People who develop insulin resistance may also develop high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood sugar, and fat around the waist. When all of these symptoms are present, the condition is referred to as metabolic syndrome.

Excessive glucose from the liver:  The liver is supposed to make and send out glucose only when your blood sugar is low. However, if the liver starts doing that when it is not needed, blood sugar rises above normal.

Cell signaling: Cells signal each other regarding how to use insulin and glucose. If these signals are not interpreted correctly, the mechanism becomes faulty and can lead to diabetes.

Beta Cells:  These cells make insulin. If they do not do this in the appropriate amount, the blood sugar cannot be regulated accordingly, and this may lead to diabetes.

 

Risk factors

Certain factors may increase the risk of developing diabetes, but do not actually cause it. The following are Risk Factors that cannot be changed:

Familial tendency:  Diabetes tends to run in the family. You are at risk if your siblings or parents are diabetic.

Age: Risk of diabetes increases with age, especially after 45.

Race: People of African-American, Hispanic, Native American, and Alaska Native ethnicities are at a greater risk of developing diabetes.

Some Risk Factors that can be changed include:

  • Smoking
  • Lack of exercise: Exercising can reduce your risk greatly, even if it is just brisk walking for half an hour every day.
  • Unhealthy diet: Foods rich in sugar, carbohydrates, and fat should be avoided. It is best to reduce consumption of red meat.
  • Obesity
  • Stress, and sleep disturbances.

Some medical conditions may also contribute to development of diabetes, and should be evaluated by your physician. These include:

  • Hypertension
  • Heart disease.
  • Poly Cystic Ovarian Disease
  • High cholesterol or triglycerides
  • Low levels of good cholesterol,
  • Pre-diabetes
  • Diabetes during pregnancy
  • Stress or Depression
  • Acanthosis Nigricans (skin condition)
Symptoms

 

Its symptoms appear suddenly & include:

  • Frequent urination
  • Increase in thirst
  • Bed-wetting seen in children who in the past didn’t wet the bed
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue & weakness
  • Irritability & other mood swings
  • Extreme hunger

Its rather emergency signs include:

  • Rapid breathing
  • Belly pain
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Fruity smell in breath
  • Confusion & shaking

 

Diagnosis

Its diagnostic tests include:

  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test in which you measure the % of blood sugar attached with hemoglobin (i.e. an oxygen-carrying protein in RBCs). Its level of 6.5% or higher will indicated diabetes
  • Random blood sugar test which involves taking blood samples at random time interval.
  • Fasting blood sugar test which involves taking blood sample after an overnight fast.
  • After diabetes is diagnosed, doctors also take test to check autoantibodies which helps differentiate b/w type 1 & type 2 diabetes.
Management

Its management will involve taking insulin shots, & adjusting food & activities as necessary. Also keep your blood sugar level monitored. There are various types of insulin present which is used according to the condition:

  • Rapid-acting (starts working in 15 minutes & works for 2 to 4 hours).
  • Regular or short-acting (starts working in 30 minutes & works for 3 to 6 hours)
  • Intermediate-acting (starts working after 2 to 4 hours & works for 12 to 18 hours)
  • Long-acting (takes several hours & works for 24 hours)
When to consult a doctor?

A doctor should be consulted if your blood sugar is not managed even after the prescribed medication. It is also necessary to consult a doctor about the long term complications of uncontrolled diabetes. These complications include:

  • Kidney Disease (Diabetic Nephropathy): This may eventually result in severe damage that is irreversible or even kidney failure.
  • Heart Diseases
  • Nerve Damage (Diabetic Neuropathy): Excess glucose injures the nerves. This causes numbness or pain in the toes and fingers, and may eventually even lead to a loss of sensation in these areas.
  • Eye Diseases (Diabetic retinopathy): High blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels of the eye. If left unchecked, this may eventually lead to blindness.
  • Diabetic Foot: In uncontrolled diabetes, inadequate blood supply coupled with nerve damage can damage the foot severely. It is important for diabetic patients to take care of their feet, and try to keep the blood sugar levels under control. If left unchecked, the Diabetic foot may eventually require amputation.

Available Medicine for Type 1 Diabetes

Humalog Vial

Rs.2030

Eli Lilly

Insulin Pen

Rs.2600

Novo Nordisk

Novopen 4

Rs.1638

Novo Nordisk

Novomix 30%/70%

Rs.1167

Novo Nordisk

Novomix 50%/50%

Rs.1367

Novo Nordisk

Novorapid 100IU

Rs.1167

Novo Nordisk

Ryzodeg 70%/30%

Rs.2790

Novo Nordisk

Ryzodeg 30%/70%

Rs.2790

Novo Nordisk

Novomix 30%/70%

Rs.1167

Novo Nordisk

Novomix 50%/50%

Rs.1367

Novo Nordisk

Levemir 100IU

Rs.1168.6

Novo Nordisk

Basagine 100IU

Rs.900

Getz Pharma

Basalin 100IU

Rs.750

EastWest pharma

Basalin 100IU

Rs.2500

EastWest pharma

Lantus 100IU/ml

Rs.3858.7

Sanofi

Lantus optiset 100IU

Rs.880

Sanofi

Lantus solostar 100IU/ml

Rs.1133.88

Sanofi

Toujeo 300IU/ml

Rs.1987.02

Sanofi

Apidra 100IU

Rs.872.07

Sanofi

Apidra 100IU

Rs.678

Sanofi

Humalog Vial

Rs.2030

Eli Lilly

Humalog Lispro 100IU

Rs.2030

Eli Lilly

Humalog Lispro 100IU

Rs.1124

Eli Lilly

Humalog Lispro 100IU

Rs.1340

Eli Lilly

Humalog Mix 100IU

Rs.1300

Eli Lilly

Humalog Mix 25 100IU

Rs.808

Eli Lilly

Humalog Mix 25 Kwikpen 100IU

Rs.1133.8

Eli Lilly

Dongsulin N 100IU

Rs.464

Highnoon

Dongsulin N 100IU

Rs.176

Highnoon

Humulin-N 100IU

Rs.861

Eli Lilly

Insuget 100IU

Rs.646

Getz Pharma

Insulatard HM 100IU

Rs.806

Novo Nordisk

Insulatard HM 100IU

Rs.305.2

Novo Nordisk

Insuman Basal 100IU|ml

Rs.240

Sanofi

Zansulin NPH 100IU

Rs.537.58

Zafa

Actrapid HM 100IU

Rs.756.94

Novo Nordisk

Actrapid HM 100IU

Rs.334

Novo Nordisk

Dongsulin R 100IU

Rs.464

Highnoon

Dongsulin R 100IU

Rs.176

Highnoon

Humulin-R 100IU

Rs.978.53

Eli Lilly

Insuget Regular 100IU

Rs.649

Getz Pharma

Insuman Rapid 100IU

Rs.240

Sanofi

Jusline Regular 100IU

Rs.464

Julphar Pakistan

Zansulin 70/30 100IU

Rs.478.75

Zafa

Zansulin Regular 100IU

Rs.537.58

Zafa

Insuman Comb 25 100IU

Rs.240

Sanofi

Mixtard 30 HM 100IU

Rs.1034.53

Novo Nordisk

Dongsulin 100IU

Rs.439

Highnoon

Dongsulin 100IU

Rs.176

Highnoon

Innogen M30 100IU

Rs.439.06

Pharm Evo

Innogen-N 100IU

Rs.464

Pharm Evo

Innogen-R 100IU

Rs.464

Pharm Evo

Insuget 70/30 100IU

Rs.649.6

Getz Pharma

Jusline 30/70 100IU

Rs.439

Julphar Pakistan